Love, not Legalism

27th Sunday Ordinary Time 10-7-18

Genesis 2:18-24; Ps 128:1-6 ; Hebrews 2:9-11;Mark 10:2-16

These readings are often used to preach about the ideal marriage. Marriage is a life-long job, requiring patience, gentleness, compromise, graciousness to sometimes carry more than your half of the relationship, and maturity to weather the hard times.  I have been married and divorced twice, so that is all I have to say about marriage.   But this is an interesting Gospel today, and I do have a few things to say about it, for it is NOT primarily about marriage.

It is about what we will call “Legalism”. I don’t like labels, but legalism is generally defined as depending on laws rather than… faith.  In Galatians 3:3, Paul writes, “How foolish can you be?  After starting your Christian lives in the Spirit, why are you now trying to become perfect by your own human effort? Does God give you his Spirit and work miracles…by…the law, or because you have heard about Christ and believe?” Another problem with legalism is that someone is always blamed.  The people of CACINA say that we “are Catholic without the guilt”.  What if we could approach issues without finding fault? “Do not judge, so that you won’t be judged,” Jesus tells us in Matthew 7:1

Jesus and the disciples leave Galilee for the last time on their way to Jerusalem.  Jesus has spent time on the road privately teaching his disciples, and discussing his upcoming death.  Their public ministry begins again now, and the Pharisees arrive from Jerusalem in an attempt to justify their plot to kill him.  They are “testing him;” Mark uses the same word he used in Chapter One, when Jesus was in the wilderness for 40 days and enduring “testing” by Satan. He is clear that the Pharisees’ intent is evil.

The topic of divorce was a minefield for the Jews. If Jesus denied the legality of divorce, he will sin by contradicting the Law of Moses.  If he tried to make divorce a morality issue, he will be following in John the Baptist’s footsteps.  John was beheaded by Herod for that approach.  Various groups of Rabbis had positions on if only men could ask for a divorce, the acceptable grounds for divorce, and so forth & so on, endlessly.  The Pharisees thought for sure they could trap Jesus in this web of opinion; surely Jesus would offend someone.

Jesus responds to their question about divorce by asking “What did Moses command you?” Moses tolerated divorce as an existing custom for the purpose of stabilizing the community.  But God said in our first reading, that two people are to “become one flesh.” Jesus, Moses, and the Pharisees all understood that God’s command did not include divorce.  Once again, Jesus defeated the Pharisees’ ploy by using the Scriptures to prove their question was not sincere, only a political trick.  But that left the disciples riled up about the issue of divorce.  They later privately ask Jesus, and he simply states a fact: “whoever divorces their spouse and marries another, commits adultery.”

Is Jesus throwing us under the bus? About 35-40% of all Americans who have been married are divorced. If you have read the Gospels, Jesus never throws any sincere person who comes to him under the bus! Read Mark 2:17: “Jesus said, “Healthy people don’t need a doctor, but sick people do.  I did not come to call righteous people, but sinners.” Are we not aware of the times Jesus outright forgave the sins of people? In Luke (19:10) Jesus said: “For the Son of Man came to seek and save what was lost.” And in John 12: 47, “If anyone hears me and does not obey me, I am not his judge—for I have come to save the world and not to judge it.” We always start each Mass with, “I absolve you from your sins in the name of the Father and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.”  There is great power in those words! In Mark 3:28-30, Jesus says: “Truly I tell you, all sins and blasphemes will be forgiven … (except) blasphemes against the Holy Spirit.”

So here it is: Jesus said that divorce is wrong, and forgiveness is waiting for all who confess and repent. It doesn’t seem like a secret to me!  In fact, I think the voice that accuses any divorcee of committing a sin that denies them the sacraments, is the voice of evil.  Jesus responds to that voice in John 10:10: “(Satan) comes only to steal and kill and destroy.  I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full.”  Revelation 12: 10-11 says it again, “Now the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God and the authority of his Christ have come, for the accuser of our brothers (and sisters) has been thrown down… And they have conquered him by the blood of the Lamb…”

Jesus even stopped those who would stone a woman “caught” in adultery, with these words: “I do not condemn you either. Go, but do not sin again.”  Jesus makes clear that adultery is a sin, but forgiveness is freely given.

All in all, our reading is another trap for Jesus to deny God or the Scriptures, set by men who already have decided to break God’s law themselves by killing Jesus. This time the issue chosen to bait the trap is divorce.  But Jesus prevails by knowing Scripture and knowing what his mission is.

Marriage is one sign of the social nature of humans in which the “two shall become as one.” Another sign is the Eucharist, for as Paul says in Romans 12:5: “We, though many, are one body in Christ…” Fr. Gerald Darring wrote, “Marriage and Eucharist are signs of sharing lives and living (in unity).  The unity of humankind is shattered every day by the evil of injustice: racism, sexism, poverty, hunger, homelessness, war. We are constantly violating the fundamental principle: ‘Let no man separate what God has joined’.  God has joined us in a society of brothers and sisters because it is not good for us to be alone: let no one separate that society through injustice.”

Law will never unify us, but love will.  I said last week, that Jesus was always making the circle larger, always including people that were different, who had experiences unlike the others.  He did not make laws and rules to bring those people together, but taught them to love God and love their neighbors like themselves.  “Now faith, hope, and love remain—these three things—and the greatest of these is love.” (1Cor 13:13)

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Both the Giver and the Gift

18th Sunday Ordinary Time 8-5-18

Exodus 16:2-4, 12-15, Ps: 78:3-4, 23- 25, 54; Ephesians 4:17, 20-24; John 6:24-35

If you missed Bishop Ron’s homily last week, you missed a great introduction to the 6-week series of reading we are in the midst of from the Gospel of John. As Bishop Ron explained, John wrote his gospel some 50 or so years after the other Gospels.  He wasn’t writing to convert people to Christianity as much as he was writing to bring already converted Christians into a deeper faith.  Time had given the early Church an opportunity to clarify what they believed; and John was part of that process.

Today, Jesus uses a common strategy which encourages people to ask a series of questions. Jesus would then answer by re-directing their thinking.  He encouraged them to consider what bread might symbolize, and what work might be – beyond just a way to buy bread.

It starts by the crowd looking for Jesus near Tiberias on the west shore of the Lake of Galilee.  He’s not there, but they find him on the north shore near Capernaum.  They ask, “When did you get here?”  Jesus immediately redirects, since the conversation needs to be about “The Bread”.  He says, “That doesn’t matter. Your real goal was to find me, not because of the miracles I do, but because yesterday you got to eat all the bread you wanted.”

Having established the topic of conversation, Jesus then talks about what their goal should be. He says, “Do not work for food that perishes, but for food that lasts for eternal life, food which the Son of Man will give you…”  He acknowledges that their days are filled with work, work that typically paid only enough to buy food for just that one day.  It was a treadmill –type existence where they were exhausted and all their earnings, their day, and their strength were spent, and their food was gone.  Jesus is not talking about food that lasts eternally, but rather food that gives eternal life.  This food is a gift that comes from Jesus.  The “seal of God on Jesus” is a way of saying that Jesus is telling them the absolute truth.

Bishop Ron also asked us to think of food we eat daily; to consider the role food plays in our lives, about the necessity of food for each and every person alive on earth, to realize how little control we have over food production. We come to realize that even a simple loaf of bread is a work of God.  Jesus is asking the crowd to think in broad ways and look for meaning beyond tomorrow.

So the crowd asks their next question. “What work can we do, then, to please God?”  Jesus has the answer ready: “This is the work of God: have faith in him whom he sent.”  Remember back a month to July 1st, when we read the story of the woman who was healed when she touched Jesus’ robe, and Jesus said to her, “Your faith has saved you.”  Remember that?  Now Jesus tells the crowd, “This is the work of God: that you believe in the one he sent.” He is telling them to have faith.

Today we use the word “faith” to mean the teachings and practices of a particular church. That is not how the word “faith” or “belief” was used in Jesus’ day.  Then it meant faithfulness, loyalty, commitment, solidarity.  Belief was the social glue that together; it was not head knowledge, but a deeply emotional value that was obvious to other people; it was a complete and binding relationship.  Faith was not a toe checking the temperature of the water; faith was complete and overwhelming one-ness.

But the crowd has not forgotten the bread; they are still hoping for free bread that does not require work, sort of like us when we buy lottery tickets. At that time, Jewish rabbis were already teaching that there was deeper meaning to the story of the “manna bread” given to the people of Exodus.  They taught that the manna was a symbol of the Jewish scriptures.  Those scriptures were the Word of God, which satisfied the hunger of the human spirit for wisdom and understanding better than anything else.  They also taught that the manna would re-appear.  That was what the people who lived a day-to-day existence heard and remembered.  So the crowd demands a “sign” of manna before they will commit to belief.  Jesus answers: He is the manna; He is the Bread of Life.

John is writing to argue against a Christian faith which does not go beyond a sign or which does not extend to what is signified. What does that mean? In this case, the words “sign” and “miracle” mean the same thing.  So, the miracle of Jesus multiplying the loaves and fishes was not just about everyone getting something to eat that day, it has greater significance and leads to deeper truth.  That miracle opened the door for people to have an insight into who Jesus was and how he will “feed” our souls for eternity.  We discover Jesus as both a gift of God and the one who gave his life so that we might live.

We do not celebrate the Eucharist just to have something concrete to remember Jesus. We celebrate the Eucharist to give thanks to God for Jesus and to open our eyes to who Jesus was and what he did to open the door to eternal life for us.  The Eucharist is not ours alone, but we are to share this bread, to multiply those who come here to learn and believe.  We join with each other around this table so that we might have understanding beyond bread.  We come for the sharing of our faith, to be in solidarity with fellow Christians in our belief, and support each other in making our faith obvious to others.

To end this passage, Jesus says, “I am the bread of life, whoever comes to me will never hunger, and whoever believes in me will never thirst.” Jesuit Father Dennis Hamm said it best when he wrote, “Jesus is known to us, through faith, as the Word of God made flesh, and who was revealed most fully in his death and resurrection.  It is he who can satisfy our deepest hunger to know what life means and who we are in order to live it (fully).”

Homily April 8, 2018- the 2nd Sunday of Easter

2 easter.jpg3As we look at the readings today, we’re looking at a series of snapshots taken after Jesus resurrection on Easter Sunday morning. Throughout the readings will take place at various times after the resurrection starting with the evening of Easter following evening one week later. Luke painted a picture of love and unity and no dissension among the followers of Jesus. The idea of the community selling all their possessions and placing them in the hands of the apostles and then distributing them according to need obviously seems to be a bit exaggerated. If we look around us at the various churches, monasteries and religious orders, that is not really a possible practice in the church or in the world as we take  realistic look at it today. Even in religious communities, all have different needs and that in itself can create problems.

2 easter.jpg2In the Gospel today, Jesus appears to his disciples, and Thomas is not present. When the apostles tell him Jesus had appeared to them, he does not believe. Even in his unbelief, the apostles did not turn him away but kept him with them until a week later Jesus appeared again. When Thomas saw Jesus, he believed. 2 easter.jpg1It was a lesson for all of us for all time that we must believe even in what at times we cannot see. It is also a lesson of acceptance. The apostles did not exclude or drive away Thomas because of his doubt. Today we must learn to accept those seeking Jesus and not turn away anyone seeking out God and a place in his church. Jesus and his Spirit live in the Church and in each of us. More than ever that means we should be as he is.

Meditation March 25, 2018 Palm Sunday

lent 6After reading the passion, we can see the cruelty and evil that is in the world come out. Even today we see harsh and even cruel punishment. Torture and even death still today are used to intimidate and control. Christ came with a message opposite to humanity’s dark side so to speak, preaching God’s love and mercy and forgiveness. His message lent 6-2endured, but the battle rages on between good and evil. So often the question is asked “why is there evil in the world?” yet do we ever ask what we do to prevent it. As we enter our holy days, let us remember that yes the Lord suffered, and died. Also that he was lent 6-3Human and divine. Yet his death and resurrection remain a mystery that will be revealed at our own death and rising. Today, I urge you to focus on the reading of the passion the you have previously heard and below is the link to the reading itself.

http://www.usccb.org/bible/readings/032518.cfm

What does Salvation mean, anyway ?

Holy Family, 12-31-17

Genesis 15: 1-6; 21: 1-3; Psalm 105: 1-9, Hebrews 11: 8, 11,12,17-19; Luke 2: 22-40

We read today from the 2nd chapter of Luke’s Gospel. Luke makes Jesus the focal point to explain the loving and generous ways of God. Luke frequently uses the title “Lord” for Jesus. “Lord” is the same name used for God in the Greek Old Testament. Jesus, Luke tells us, is God come to earth. Jesus came to all people. Luke takes great effort to relate how Jesus brought salvation to the poor, women, children, “sinners”, and outcasts (like the Samaritans).

In fact, two of Luke’s favorite expressions are “preach the gospel” and “salvation.” “Preaching the Gospel” includes the entire ministry of Jesus- his teaching, healing, and compassion were all part of the good news that God has come to His people. “Salvation” is defined in Luke 19:10 this way: “The Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost.” Too often Christians use this word but aren’t so sure what it means. The words salvation and “Savior” both come from the same Latin word (salvare), which means to save. The basic idea of being saved or salvation is that God will “find and free” us from any kind of evil, just as God freed the Israelites from slavery in Egypt. God frees us to fully participate in all the goodness of life and in all the blessings of God. It makes sense then that God wishes to save us from sin as well as the evils that are the consequences of sin. Jesus acts as the “middle man” or mediator who suffers and dies to bring us this salvation both now and in eternal life.

So, with that long introduction, we begin with the Jewish ritual purification of Mary, when a sacrifice of turtledoves or pigeons was offered 40 days after the birth of a child, as required by the Law of Moses in Leviticus 12. The mother is welcomed back into the community after the birth.

A second ritual was also completed, that being the “redeeming” of a first born child. All first born children – and animals, for that matter – were presumed to belong to God. Children were “bought back” with a small offering of money. You can find that Law in Exodus 13:13. God-fearing parents of every century feel the need to thank God for the miracle of a child. It’s a tradition that makes great sense. The parents publically proclaim the child is theirs, as a gift from God, and they will support, nurture, teach, and raise the child in the faith. These traditions introduce the infant to the worship of God in the community of believers, not unlike Christian infant baptism.

This scene with the infant Jesus also underlines the larger idea of redemption. For Christians, redemption is closely tied to salvation. Marie Monville wrote this: “To redeem means to exchange one thing for another, to buy back, to recover the value of something by exchanging it for another. God replaces…weakness with his strength, the ugliness of sin with the beauty of forgiveness, the blackest darkness with his brilliant light.”  It is sort of like redeeming something in a pawn shop!  In 1 Corinthians 6:19-20, St. Paul wrote, “You are not your own; you were bought with a price”. That is the Catholic view of the crucifixion – that the price Jesus paid for us to be redeemed and freed from sin was his own life.

Two significant messages are then delivered by Simeon and Anna. Simeon, a “righteous and devout man” was looking for the “consolation of Israel” – meaning the salvation which the Messiah was to bring. Messiah is an Aramaic word meaning “liberator”, which means the same as “Savior”. Simeon had been promised by the Holy Spirit that he would see the Messiah, and now he proclaims that he has seen the Messiah who will bring salvation to all people, not only the Jews. Simeon says, “…my eyes have seen your salvation…a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and glory for your people Israel.” God has kept his promise to Simeon, to the prophets (Isaiah 49:6), and to King David.

Simeon offers a blessing of thanksgiving to God and a blessing of prophecy to Mary and Joseph. Out of Simeon’s mouth comes a very precise statement of the miracle of Jesus: the child brings peace and the promise of a Messiah has been fulfilled. In addition, Jesus is the entrance of God into the world for all people; he is a revelation and light (new understanding). Jesus will bring salvation and judgment; he will bring lasting changes to the world, and the changes will result in a strong push-back from the darkness in the world.

One of the unique traits of Luke’s Gospel is that he often introduces a strong man counterbalanced by a woman. Luke names this woman, which is highly unusual in writings of the day; we actually have more information about Anna than Simeon. We know her age, her father’s name and her tribe. Luke tells us that Anna, like Simeon, was very devout, “She did not depart from the temple, worshiping with fasting and prayer night and day.” She too said a prayer of thanksgiving for the child Jesus and, like the shepherds, immediately “spoke of (Jesus) to all who were looking for the redemption of Jerusalem.” Anna’s waiting is over, her patience has been rewarded, and then she participates in the preaching of the Gospel.

As always, God chooses us (all) and provides what we need to be in a personal relationship with our Creator. We are offered freedom from slavery to sin and darkness, the price has been paid, and we must act on our choice. That is one reason we have all those Bible characters who are flawed and foolish; we read about them stumble and fall, then ask for forgiveness and return to right relationship (what Christians call righteousness) with God. And people who experience this freedom want to share it with others. Amazing – all this from just a portion of the 2nd chapter of Luke!

Unity in Community

26th Sunday Ordinary Time 10-1-17

Ezekiel 18:25-28; Psalm: 25:4-9;  Philippians 2:1-11 (a must read before you continue);  Matthew 21:28-32

 

We usually focus on the Gospel reading, but last Sunday we started a 4-week reading from Paul’s letter to the church in Philippi.  This is one of his more straightforward letters, with fewer complex sentences and less dense theology. Indeed, this is a beautiful passage.   In fact, this is one of his letters written from jail.  It’s probably fair to say that when people are confined, contrary to their own wishes, without knowing what the future will bring, they become introspective, and begin the process of identifying their real priorities and deeply held beliefs.  Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote “Letters from Birmingham Jail”, and Dietrich Bonheoffer wrote letters and poems, both of which are good examples of this.

 

Paul is writing to encourage the Philippians. There are some growing divisions in their community.  Some outside people have come to them in attempt to weaken the message of God’s love and move them toward harsh legalism and bondage to law instead.  It is a time when they need to remain strong in their faith, and not be intimidated by opponents. Paul stresses the themes of Joy (in prayer, in work, in the Gospel, and in suffering).  He also stresses fellowship with each other (unmarred by selfishness or pride), and in the Good News of Christ.

 

So he begins by a series of rhetorical questions, reminding the Philippians of the privileges and duties of a Christian, of the life they are to live as Christians, and the strength they have found in the life of Christ and in their own lives as a Christian community.

  1. Did you find encouragement in Christ himself?
  2. Have you found comfort in the blessings of love and given that love to others without reserve or discrimination?
  3. Have you come together in One Spirit, the Holy Spirit, and found a unity unlike any other?
  4. What has it been like to experience the tenderness and compassion of God and has it made you reach out to others with deep-seated and sincere affection and sympathy?
  5. Can you fill me with joy to hear of your harmony and loving cooperation?

 

Then he offers advice to keep them strong and on the right track.

  1. Selfishness, inflated egos, personal ambition, and pride destroy unity.
  2. Regard others as more important than yourself; look for those strengths and gifts that other people have and be aware of your own weaknesses, failures and limitations.
  3. Make a habit of thinking and speaking of the needs and interests of others as well as your own. Your thoughts and attitudes are the basis of your speech and action.

 

So where do these virtues come from? Who modeled them for us?  Christ, of course!  But it goes deeper than that.  Christ established a pattern of humiliation – glorification.  What I mean is, Christ’s humiliation began before his birth, as he chose to come to earth not as an all-powerful, all-knowing God, that people would fall on their knees in front of him, but as a vulnerable human child of poor parents, threatened by King Herod, forced to flee for his very life, and destined to grow and mature slowly, doing manual labor.  Then he was a wandering preacher, outside of the centers of power and prestige, with no home, sometimes hungry and often misunderstood.  He endured the press and demands of the crowds, the neediness of the sick, and abuse and a death sentence by religious and political leaders.  Finally, he suffered the stigma of torture and death as a criminal.  Yet he was raised from the dead and ascended into the Glory of eternal life. That is a pattern which is nearly too much for us to imagine, much less imitate.  Yet as we become one with Christ and God in the unity of the Holy Spirit, it is the pattern with which Christians are brought into community and communion by their incorporation into Christ and their life in him.  The in-dwelling of the Holy Spirit can enable us and give us strength to do what is right, if we desire to listen and be changed.

 

St. Paul is inescapably direct when he says: In the name of the encouragement you owe me in Christ, in the name of the solace that love can give, of fellowship in spirit, compassion, and pity, I beg you, make my joy complete by your unanimity, possessing the one love, united in spirit and ideals. Never act out of rivalries or conceit; rather, be humble – think of others as superior to yourselves, each of you looking to others’ interests rather than your own. Your attitude must be Christ’s attitude.

 

But that is the very attitude we resist. We live on rivalry, we cherish our conceit. Our rarest concern is the other’s good—unless it is hard won through demanding relationships of covenant and trust. Yet, I do not think Paul is talking against honest dialogue, where differences are discussed and reconciled to the good of all.  Paul would not be one who would demand rigid allegiance to a human law or regulation or tradition.  Remember, he was formerly a Pharisee and spend his early life studying the Jewish laws.  That study would have included many debates and heartfelt differences of opinion.   In fact, I think he would expect broad participation in community decision making, including prayer and thoughtful study of scripture and empathy with human needs and human errors.  But he would be opposed to contentious and rowdy yelling matches, where parties demand their own way for the sake of pride.

 

So Paul offers us this hymn to give us a way to internalize this lesson. It is likely the most quoted and memorized portion of this letter, with short rhythmic lines in two parts.  In the first three verses (6-8), Christ is the subject of every verb.  In the last three verses (9-11), God is the subject of every verb.   Paul has added “even death on a cross”, which breaks the rhythm to add emphasis for the completeness of Christ’s humiliation and also added “to the glory of God the Father” to add to the fullness of Christ’s glory.  Notice that the name “Lord” reveals the true nature of Jesus, and the phrase “Jesus Christ is Lord” is an early Christian acclamation, identifying the divinity of Christ.  Finally, every knee shall bend in homage to Christ and everyone shall recognize him as Divine on all levels, “those in heaven, and on earth and under the earth.”

 

Paul adds his own summary in the verses immediately following, which are not part of our missal reading. He says, “So then, my beloved,…work out your salvation with fear and trembling.  For God is the one who, for his good purpose, works in you both to desire and to work… hold onto to the word of life, so that my boast for the day of Christ may be that I did not… labor in vain.”   Let us, too, be in Christ, and so that we will not labor in vain.